Schematic representations of groundwater nuisance caused by precipitation (A) and evaporation (B)*.

Amsterdam’s groundwater system studied per district

The groundwater system in urban areas is determined by the balance between natural processes and human activity. The balance between natural and human factors deserves careful attention, so that groundwater nuisance is prevented. However, this balance is under increasing pressure due to urbanisation (underground infrastructure and cellars) and climate change (increasing rainfall intensity).

What is the influence of the barrier effect of cellars, Rainproof Amsterdam and climate change on the groundwater system studied at district level in Amsterdam?

**This article was previously published as a H2O-article on (in Dutch).
A summary of the article online, has been published in H20-magazine, may 2020 (in Dutch).

*Explanation of illustration > A: Increase in groundwater level due to precipitation. Cellars and streets are flooded.
B: lowering of the groundwater level by evaporation. Foundation piles become dry

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